crp

Genetics and Plant Breeding
  • World's largest germplasm collection of coconut (comprising 401accessions 269 indigenous and 132 exotic) is being maintained in the Institute.  The exotic collections are from 28 countries of South Asia, South-East Asia, Africa, Caribbean Islands, Indian Ocean Islands and Pacific Ocean Islands.
  • Designated as National Active Germplasm Site for Plantation crops and host for National Gene Banks for coconut, arecanut and cocoa.
  • Host to International Coconut Gene Bank for South Asia under Coconut Genetic Resources Network of Bioversity
  • Released twelve improved varieties of coconut (Chandra Kalpa, Kera Chandra, Chowghat Orange Dwarf, Kalpa Pratibha, Kalpa Dhenu, Kalpa Mitra, Kalparaksha, Kalpasree, Kalpatharu, Kalpa Jyothi, Kalpa Surya and Kalpa Haritha) .

  • Released five high yielding hybrids of coconut - Chandra Sankara, Kera Sankara, Chandra Laksha,   Kalpa Samrudhi and  Kalpa Sankara.
  • Dwarf varieties viz., Chowghat Orange Dwarf, Kalpa Jyothi, Kalpa Surya were released exclusively for tender coconut
  • Kalpa Pratibha, Kalpa Haritha, Kalpa Samrudhi, Chgandra Sankara, Kalparaksha and Kalpasree were released as dual purpose varieties suitable for copra and tender nuts
  • Chandra Kalpa, Kalpa Mitra, Kalpa Dhenu, Kalpa Pratibha Kalpatharu and Kalpa Samrudhi  are relatively tolerant to drought.
  • Kalpa Haritha is comparatively free from Eriophyid mite infestation amidst heavely infested palms of other varieties
  • Dwarf varieties viz., Kalparaksha and Kalpasree  are recommended for root (wilt) affected areas with higher degree of root (wilt) disease resiatnce.
  • The hybrid Kalpa Sankara is released for  root (wilt) disease tracts for its tolerance to the disease
  • Kalpatharu is released for ball copra production
  • Coconut descriptors prepared for 74 accessions and important accessions registered.

  • In arecanut,164 germplasm collections of which 23 exotic and 141 indigenous are conserved at CPCRI,RS, Vittal
  • Released six high yielding varieties (Mangala, Sumangala, Sreemangala, Mohitnagar, Swarnamangala and Kahikuchi) and two hybrids of arecanut (VTLAH1 and VTLAH2)

  • In cocoa, 321  germplasm collections including 281 exotic and 40 indigenous clones are being conserved under Arecanut and Coconut at CPCRI, Regional Station, Vittal, Karnataka.
  • Seven varieties of cocoa are released including four hybrids (VTLCH-1, VTLCH-2, VTLCH-3 and VTLCH-4), one clone VTLCC-1 and two selections VTLCS-1 and VTLCS-2. They exhibited high pod and dry bean yields, bigger and bold beans with less shell contents, high nib recovery, richness in fat, tolerance to water stress and suitability to be grown both in arecanut and coconut gardens.
  • Softwood grafting technology has been standardized in cocoa and utilised for mass multiplication.
  • Scion bank and compact block on varieties are established with mother trees.
  • Six bi-clonal and one poly-clonal orchards are established with 1100 trees for F1 seed production at CPCRI, Research Centre, Kidu, Karnataka.
  • Quality planting material of mandate crops are being produced to the extent of more than 1.2 lakh coconut seed nuts, 3 lakh arecanut seed nuts and 1.1 lakh cocoa grafts/ seedlings/ seed pods.
  • CPCRI nurseries at Kasaragod, Kidu and Vittal are recognized and accredited under 4* category by National Horticulture Board.

Biotechnology

Development of in vitro regeneration protocol for mass production of quality planting material and cryopreservation studies in coconut and arecanut

  • Protocol for regeneration of coconut plantlets from plumule explants through somatic embryogenesis developed.

  • Plantlet regeneration from adult explants (inflorescence) of arecanut was achieved.
  • Cryopreservation techniques have been standardized for mature coconut zygotic embryos and coconut pollen.
  • Droplet vitrification method developed for coconut plumule cryopreservation.
  • Arecanut pollen collection method and its germination media for pollen cryopreservation studies standardized
  • In vitroprotocol for multiplication of dwarf arecanut hybrids standardized.
  • Cell suspension culture studies were initiated from coconut embryogenic calli and cell multiplication was achieved.

Viability and fertility studies using cryopreserved coconut pollen

  • Pollen of both WCT and COD cultivars retained its viability and fertility even after a storage period of 4 years in liquid nitrogen.
Marker assisted selection for agronomically important traits in coconut 
  • RAPD markers have been identified for differentiating tall and dwarf cultivars of coconut. These markers have been converted as SCAR markers and validated.
Molecular characterization of germplasm accessions
  • DNA finger printing using microsatellite markers have been carried out in 139 coconut accessions to document the genetic integrity and diversity.
  • A panel of SSR markers have been identified for confirming the hybridity of D x T hybrids (CGD x WCT) which will ensure supply of genuine hybrids to farmers.
  • DNA extraction protocol of cocoa with fully expanded but soft leaves was standardized with modified SDS method. Nigerian, South and Central American accessions have been analyzed using SSR markers.
 
  • Sixty indigenous and exotic arecanut accessions have been analyzed using RAPD and SSR markers.
 

Cloning and characterisation of resistant genes for biotic and abiotic stresses

  • Transcripts induced during water-stress have been cloned and characterized using differential display RT-PCR.
  • Resistant Gene Analogues (RGAs) were cloned and characterised from coconut using a degenerate-primer based PCR strategy and comparative genomics.Based on the results obtained in this study, gene-specific primers were designed to amplify genes induced during water-stress in coconut.

Development of database and tools using bioinformatic tools

  • With support from Department of Information Technology, an Agri-Bioinformatics Promotion Centre was created
  • Under the Bioinformatics initiative, several comprehensive databases for the mandate crops have been developed.
  • MAPS (Microsatellite Analysis and Prediction Software), a bio-Java based independent; stand alone platform was designed to allow the identification and characterization of microsatellites in entire genomes.
  • A computational method based on SVM was developed for prediction of gibberellic acid biosynthetic enzymes in palms.
  • A tool for prediction of the RGA motifs was developed using Support vector machines (SVM), standalone BLAST and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) has been developed.
  • DNA barcode data of three genes of indigenous palms were organized into a database, which was implemented in MySQL.
  • Stand alone EST-SSR analysis pipeline (SEMAT) was developed.
  • Carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was reconstructed based on cocoa whole genome sequence.
  • Various cocoa EST libraries (related to both abiotic and biotic) were analyzed and key genes involved in different pathways were deduced.
  • Cocoa chloroplast specific pathway database was developed.
  • SSR's in date palm whole genome sequence was identified and characterized.
  • SSRs and SNPs were identified and characterized in WRKY genes in palms
  • SSR primers were developed in date palm from whole genome sequence and cross species amplification was confirmed in other palms
  • miRNA sequences were identified in date palm whole genome. 
  • ‘PMU Finder’ for the identification of PMU genes from whole genome sequences of phytoplasma was developed.
  • PHYTODB- a comprehensive and user-friendly web server and a knowledgebase devoted only to the phytoplasma, its taxonomic groups, associated genes and proteins was developed.
  • Isolation, comparison, and RFLP analysis of membrane transporter genes of phytoplasma was carried out.
 

Development of algorithms for prediction of genes/promoters in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

  • ‘PROMIT’ tool identifies promoters in the -10 and -35 regions of sequences from the Pseudomonas spp.
  • ‘LTTRPred’, a tool for identifying and predicting the LTTR genes, responsible for the activation of Plt transcription regulators, in whole genome of various Pseudomonas spp. has been developed.
  • 'NRPS Pred’, a gene prediction tool using a machine learning algorithm was developed to predict Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPS) genes, which are involved in the pyoverdine biosynthetic pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • ‘BACPred’ a tool was developed for the identification of bacilysin synthesizing genes in whole genome of Bacillus spp.
  • Protocol for regeneration of coconut plantlets from plumule explants through somatic embryogenesis developed.
  • Cryopreservation techniques have been standardized for mature coconut zygotic embryos and coconut pollen

  • DNA finger printing using molecular markers viz. RAPD, AFLP, DAF and microsatellites have been carried out in coconut and cocoa accessions to document the genetic integrity and diversity. About 139 coconut accessions have been characterized using SSR markers.  Mother palms used for seed production have been genotyped to develop markers for hybridity. Diverse germplasm accessions including dwarfs and talls are being used for developing markers for dwarf plant habit.
  • Tissue culture protocol has been standardised  for mass multiplication of arecanut from inflorescence explants and genetic  fidelity of in vitro derived plantlets has been assesed using molecular markers

  • Transcripts induced during water stress have been identified using differential display RT-PCR technique (DDRT-PCR). The clones were characterized into different functional groups based on the sequence similarities.

Cloning and identification of transcripts induce during water-stress in coconut


  • The nucleotide and protein sequences pertaining to known genes induced during water stress vizDREB, 14-3-3, aquaporins,9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase,WRKY , NAC and epicuticular wax (CER, GL and Wax) were retrieved from the NCBI. Nucleotide sequences coding for conserved domain amino acids were selected for oligomer designing. The degenerate primers were used to amplify putative water stress responsive genes in coconut via RT-PCR. Amplicons of expected sizes were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Positive sequences were deposited in Genbank.

Isolation of genes induced during somatic embryogenesis in coconut. 
  • The nucleotide and protein sequences pertaining to genes induced during somatic embryogenesis viz. SERK (somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase) and BBM (BABY BOOM) were retrieved from the NCBI.  Nucleotide sequences coding conserved domain amino acid was selected for oligomer designing. These degenerate primers were used to amplify, clone and sequence SERK and BBM genes in coconut
Cross transferability of SSR makers from coconut to related palms.
  • To study the cross transferability of SSR markers from coconut in other palms, 86 microsatellite markers specific to coconut were screened out of which 55 primers gave strong, clear bands of expected size range (100-300bp). These primers were tested for their cross-taxa amplification in oil palm, arecanut, palmyrah and date palm. The percentage of cross-amplification of coconut SSR loci in other palms were 36.36% in oil palm, 29.09% in arecanut, 18.18% in palmyrah and 12.70% in date palm.

 

 

 

 

Cloning of MAP kinase induced during water stress in coconut. 
  • Coconut plantlets in vitro were subjected to water stress with PEG treatment and RNA was isolated from the leaves. Degenerate primers, designed for amplification ofMAP kinase, were used in single-step RT-PCR reactions with the isolated RNA as template. Bands of expected size were eluted, cloned and sequenced.  One fragment showed homology to known MAP kinase from other plants.
Bioinformatics
  • Under the Bioinformatics initiative, several comprehensive databases for the mandate crops have been developed.

 

 

 

 

Technologies Commercialized

 

Safety device for coconut climbing machine

Application: When attached the safety device provides fool proof safety to the person climbing coconut using the Chemberi model coconut climbing machine

Unit cost: Rs.250/- (excluding the cost of body harness)
Coconut chips

Application: Coconut chips with different flavour sweet, salted and etc. can be prepared.
Unit cost : Rs.1.5 lakh
Output capacity: 300 coconuts / day
Snow Ball Tender Nut Machine

Application: To produce snowball tendernut from tender coconut
Unit cost : Rs.20,000/-
Output capacity: Ten snowball tendernuts per hour
Shell Fired Copra Dryer

Application/Use: For drying coconut to make copra for oil extraction
Unit cost: Rs.33000/-
Output Capacity:1000 nuts per batch
Tender nut punch and cutter

Application/Use: For drinking tender nut water
Unit cost: Rs.3500/-
Output Capacity: 150 – 200 nuts/hr
Virgin Coconut Oil by Fermentation and Hot Process Method

Application: To produce Virgin Coconut Oil from coconut milk – a value added product from coconut   Unit cost : Rs.5,50,000/- Output capacity: 500 nuts/day
Vermicomposting of coconut farm waste by Earth worm

Unit cost : Rs. /-

Coconut De-Shelling Machine

The Coconut De-Shelling Machine is to remove shell from partially dried copra of moisture content 35 % d.b. The batch type machine has a capacity of de-shelling 200 coconuts per batch.

Coconut shell removing machine

The coconut shell removing machine reduces both time and drudgery involved in the manual de-shelling process. It also gives coconut kernal in single piece so that testa removing would be easy. The machine is quite gender friendly, even a lady can operate the machine with minimum experience. The machine has a capacity to remove the shell of 120 coconuts per hour. An experienced person could achieve a capacity of 150 coconuts per hour.

*Disclaimer: Institute will not be responsible for the failure of the safety device, if any, occurring due to any deviation from the design specifications.  

 

Collaborations

 


International

  • Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.
  • Coconut Genetic Resources Network, France.


ICAR Institutes

  • Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai.
  • Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture,  Lucknow
  • Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
  • National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Mau.
  • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi.
  • National Research Centre for Cashew, Puttur.
  • National Research Centre for Oil Palm,  Pedavegi.
  • Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore


State Agricultural Universities

  • Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad.
  • Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur
  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore


Others

  • Directorate of Cashewnut and Cocoa Development (DCCD), Kochi.
  • Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development (DASD), Calicut.
  • Coconut Development Board, Kochi
  • All State Horticulture Departments
  • Department of Biotechnology.
  • Department of Science and Technology.
  • Department of Information Technology.
  • Calicut University, Calicut.
  • Kannur University, Kannur.
  • Mangalore University, Mangalore.
  • KVK, Kundrakudi, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University.
  • All AICRP centers.

 

Varieties/ Hybrids Developed

Coconut Cultivars

 

Dwarf Cultivars

Kalpa Raksha

This is a semi tall variety with sweet tender nut water and with higher resistance to root (wilt) disease of coconut. It comes to flowering by 54 months from planting. Its annual yield is 87 nuts/palm, 16.38 kg copra/palm and 10.65 kg oil/palm. In root (wilt) disease affected tracts, it gives an annual yield 65 nuts/palm.  The quantity of tender nut water is 290ml. This is released as a variety for tender nut and for cultivation in root (wilt) prevalent areas of Kerala
Chowghat Orange Dwarf (COD)

This is an early flowering cultivar and takes about 3-4 years for initial flowering. The average annual yield is 63 nuts/palm/year. It is best suited for tender nut water. This cultivar was released by CPCRI in 1991 for large scale cultivation as tender nut variety.
Kalpa Sree

Kalpasree has superior quality of coconut oil, very sweet tender nut water and meat and is resistant to root (wilt) disease. This is the earliest flowering cultivar and takes about 2.5 to 3 years for flowering. It is found to be resistant to root (wilt) disease. The mean annual yield is 90 nuts/palm with a copra content of 96.3g. This variety is released for root (wilt) prevalent areas of Kerala.
Kalpa Jyothi

Dwarf variety with yellow fruits, higher average yield of 114 nuts per palm per year under rainfed conditions with estimated copra yield of over 16 kg per palm per year. Recommended for cultivation in Kerala and Karnataka for tender nut purpose.
Kalpa Surya

Dwarf with Orange fruits recommended for cultivation in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for tender nut purpose. The average yield is 123 nuts per palm per year under irrigated conditions with estimated copra out turn of 23 kg per palm per year.
Hybrid Cultivars
Kalpa Sreshta (MYD x TPT)

The mean yield is 167 nuts/palm/year, with estimated high copra out turn of 35.9 kg/palm/year or 6.28t/ha copra. The hybrid is suitable for tender nut purpose. This hybrid is recommended for cultivation in Kerala and Karnataka States.
Chandra Sankara (COD x WCT)

The palms come to bearing early when compared to tall palms. It is a heavy yielder and produces 116 nuts/palm with a range of 100-150 nuts. The copra content in nut is 160-230 g. It is susceptible to drought and hence irrigation is required during summer months. Chandrasankara was released by CPCRI in 1985 for cultivation in Kerala and Karnataka.
Kera Sankara (WCT X COD)

The palm comes to bearing by the fourth year of planting. The mean annual yield of nuts is 108 with a range of 70-130 nuts. The copra content is 187g/nut. This hybrid was released by CPCRI in 1991, for large scale cultivation in Kerala, coastal Andhra Pradesh and coastal Maharashtra.
Chandra Laksha (LCT X COD)

The hybrid palm comes to bearing in about 4-5 years after planting. The annual yield is 109 nuts/ palm with a copra content of 150-210g/nut. The hybrid was released by CPCRI.
Kalpa Samrudhi (MYDxWCT)

The mean annual yield is 117 nuts per palm. The copra yield is 4.38 t/ha and oil is 3.04 t/ha. The hybrid is suitable for tender nut purpose. This hybrid was recommended for cultivation in Kerala, and Assam.
Kalpa Sankara (CGDxWCT)

The mean annual yield is 85 nuts per palm. The copra yield is 2.5 t/ha and oil is 1.69 t/ha. This hybrid was recommended for cultivation in root (wilt) disease prevalent tracts of Kerala.
Tall Cultivars
Kalpa Dhenu

It commences flowering in 67 months after planting in the field. This variety has the potential to produce 22,794 nuts per hectare per year in Tamil Nadu state. The quantity of tender nut water is 290 ml. This is recommended for cultivation in Kerala, East Coast region of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Kalpa Pratibha

This variety has the potential to produce 23,275 nuts per hectare per year in West Bengal state. The quantity of tender nut water is 448 ml. This is recommended for cultivation in Kerala, Maharashtra, interior zone of Tamil Nadu and coastal zone of Andhra Pradesh
Kalpa Mitra

This variety has the potential to produce 80 nuts/palm/year. The quantity of tender nut water is 495 ml. This is recommended for cultivation in Kerala and West Bengal.
Chandra Kalpa

The average annual yield is 100 nuts/palm. The palm grows in all types of soil and it can withstand moisture stress. This cultivar is recommended for cultivation in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Kera Chandra

The annual yield of nuts varies from 90 to 200 with an average of 110 nuts/palm. This is recommended for the west coast including Konkan Region, coastal Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.
Kalpa Tharu

This variety is recommended for ball copra production. It yields around 116 nuts per palm per year with copra content of 176g, under rainfed situations. This is recommended for cultivation in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Kalpa Haritha

A superior high yielding tall selection with lesser incidence of eriophyid mite infestation. The average nut yield is 118 nuts per palm per year under rainfed conditions with estimated copra yield of 25.5 kg per palm per year. Recommended for Kerala and Karnataka suitable for copra and tender nut purpose.

    Cocoa

  VTLCC-1  
Vittal Cocoa Clone 1

Early, heavy bearer and both self and cross compatible clone.

Green to yellow pods: 75/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 36.

Single dry bean weight: 1.05 g.

Shelling: 12%, Fat content: 52.5%.

Dry bean yield: 1.33 kg/tree/year, 911 kg/ha.
VTLCS-1  
Vittal Cocoa Selection 1

Precocious, stable and high yielder both under arecanut and coconut with medium canopy, withstands biotic and abiotic stress.

Red to Orange pods: 54.5 / tree/ year

No.of beans/ pod: 42

Single dry bean wt: 1.13 g

Shelling: 11%, Fat- 52.1%,

Dry bean yield/ tree/ year: 2.52 kg/tree/year, 1700 kg/ha
VTLCS-2    
Vittal Cocoa Selection 2

Early, stable and high yielder both under arecanut and coconut, have bold and bigger beans, less incidence of pests and diseases.

Green to Yellow pods: 55 /tree/year

No. of beans/ pod: 42

Single dry bean wt: 1.21 g

Shelling: 15% Fat: 53%

Dry bean yield: 2.7 kg/ tree/ year, 1850 kg/ha
VTLCH-1    

Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 1

Vigorous, early and heavy bearer.

Green to yellow pods: 50/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 42.

Single dry bean weight: 1.00 g.

Shelling: 13%, Fat content: 53.6%.

Dry bean yield: 1.48 kg/tree/year, 1014 kg/ha.
VTLCH-2

Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 2

Heavy bearer, medium canopy and tolerant to black pod rot.

Green to yellow pods: 70/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 40.

Single dry bean weight: 1.15 g.

Shelling: 11%, Fat content: 54%.

Dry bean yield: 1.15 kg/tree/year, 800 kg/ha.
VTLCH-3

Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 3

Suitable for rainfed & irrigated areca and coconut gardens of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Green to yellow pods: 45/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 43.

Single dry bean weight: 1.07 g.

Shelling: 13%, Fat content: 52.

Stomatal resistance (s/cm): 2.42.

Dry bean yield: 1.45 kg/tree/year, 993 kg/ha
VTLCH-4

Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 4

Suitable for rainfed & irrigated areca and coconut gardens of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Red to orange pods: 40/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 43.

Single dry bean weight: 1.01 g.

Shelling: 12%, Fat content: 53%.

Stomatal resistance (s/cm): 2.41.

Dry bean yield: 1.25 kg/tree/year, 856 kg/ha.

 

 

Patents

 

Sl. No. Ref. No. Patent No Title
1 1127/Del/2005 269186 Design and development of shell fired copra dryer
2 2294/CHE/2009 268548 Coconut/Arecanut palm climbing device
3 672/CHE/2006 233742 Design and development of coconut de-shelling machine
4 670/CHE/2006 233744 Tender coconut punch and cutter
5 669/CHE/2006 246751 Development of Telescopic sprayer
6

1363/CHE/2008

278013 Coconut Testa Removing Machine
7 1363/CHE/2008 285418 Coconut chips slicing machine

 



ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute
Kudlu.P.O,
Kasaragod,Kerala, 671124


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Time: 2017-08-22 12:40:17

                   

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