Calender of operation

Print

Calendar Of Operations For Arecanut

January

Nursery

  • Based on the availability of seed nuts, re-sowing can be done in ungerminated bags in nurseries, which are in operation throughout the year with water facilities
  • Sorting and repotting of 3 months old sprouts from primary nursery to secondary nursery or into poly bags
  • Secondary nursery beds of about 150 cm width, 15 cm height and with convenient length is suggested and a spacing of 30-45 cm may be given for replanting sprouts
  • The secondary nursery should be given a basal dose of decomposed farmyard manure @ about 5 tonnes per ha.
  • Watering daily through hose/sprinkler/fine misting
  • Weeding
  • Removal of weak seedlings
  • Overhead shade maintenance with shade net/thatched areca leaves/plaited coconut leaves

New garden

  • Shading and irrigation

Old garden

  • Harvesting and drying of ripe nuts may be continued
  • Dehusking dry nuts and grading
  • Hose irrigation may be given once in 4 to 7 days at the rate of 175 litres of water per application. 20 litres of water/palm/day may be applied through drip irrigation system
  • Control for mite and inflorescence caterpillar may be taken up

February

Nursery

  • Daily watering- hose/sprinkler/fine misting
  • Weekly weeding
  • Rearranging bags
  • Shade maintenance

Young garden

  • Hose irrigation may be given once in five days
  • Drip irrigation on daily basis @ 20 litres/palm/day
  • If the existing plaited coconut leaves provided as shade to young seedlings  decomposed or damaged, replace with new one.
  • After weeding the cut weeds and palm leaves can be spread over the barren soil in between rows, which will act as mulching material and enrich the organic content of the soil.
  • Measures such as contour bunding, terracing etc. can be taken up in sloppy lands for soil and moisture conservation

Old garden

  • South west side of arecanut garden may be protected from sun scorch by wrapping the green portions of the stem with dry areca leaves, leaf sheaths or opaque polythene film or painting with lime.
  • Irrigate during the dry spell in west coast once in six days.  For efficient water use, drip irrigation can be followed.
  • Application of organic mulches, green/dried forest leaves, areca husk etc to the base of the palm helps in conservation of soil moisture, loosening heavy soils, increasing aeration and water intake.
  • Inflorescence die back may be noticed and controlled

March

Nursery

  • Daily watering- hose/sprinkler/fine misting.
  • Regular supervision of shade net position.
  • Tie the nets tightly without bending over the permanent pipes and pillars in the nursery.
  • Cover the entire nursery area to allow filtered sunlight

Young garden

  • Mulching with green leaves/coir compost/5 kg FYM will conserve the moisture in the young garden during summer and enrich the physical properties of the soil. Chopped areca leaves, cut grass, arecanut husk, fresh and dry leaves collected from the forests can also be used as mulch in areca gardens.
  • Hose irrigation once in five days or daily by drip irrigation.
  • Shade management with intercropped banana and other shade trees in the borders to reduce the effect of sun. Casuarina and Gliricidia are also being grown in borders for shade and as wind breaks.

Old garden

  • Irrigation may be continued wherever facilities exist.
  • Severe sun scorching and stem breaking may be noticed and control measures may be taken up.
  • Arecanut palms particularly those under exposed conditions, may show symptoms of mite attack.
  • Generally, attack of pests will be more during summer months and so surveillance is very important.

April

Nursery

  • Daily watering- hose/sprinkler/fine misting.
  • Control leaf spot disease.

Young garden

  • Weeding

Old garden

  • Forking and application of first dose of fertilizers at the end of April in the irrigated garden.
  • Irrigate sufficiently after fertilizer application for efficient absorption.
  • Control mites, pentatomid bugs and scale insects.

May

Nursery

  • Watering may be continued.  Shade may be reduced in the nursery on receipt of one to two good summer showers.
  • Discard the ungerminated bags.

New garden

  • Selection of site and laying out for new plantation.
  • Pits of 60 cm3 should be taken 2-3 weeks before planting to ward off the field heat. While digging top and bottom soils should be heaped separately. Pit should be half filled with top soil and 5-10 kg Farm Yard Manure (FYM) one week before planting.  Seedlings should be planted in the centre of the pit,  pressed around, mulched and shaded.

Old garden

  • If first dose of fertilizers were not given during April, it can be given in May in irrigated arecanut gardens.
  • Application of first dose of fertilizers to supply 35g N, 15g P2O5 and 50g K2O per palm can be taken up in rainfed gardens after receipt of sufficient showers.
  • Irrigate palms during hot and dry periods at regular intervals of 3-5 days depending upon the soil type and availability of water for irrigation.
  • Sow seeds of green manure cover crops such as Mimosa invisia, Stylosanthes gracilles, Calapagonium muconoides and Pueraria javanica, in April-May with onset of pre-monsoon rains. The seed rate required per hectare is 15 kg, 9 kg, 11 kg and 11 kg respectively. These crops may be cut and incorporated during October.
  • Before the onset of south-west monsoon, dried leaves and diseased palms should be removed. 1% Bordeaux mixture may be sprayed as a prophylactic measure to avoid Phytophthora related problems (bud rot, crown rot, fruit rot and foot rot) in high rainfall areas.
  • Control root grub.

June

Nursery

  • Regular removal of weeds.
  • Monitoring for incident of any diseases especially die back disease.
  • Providing sufficient drainage and cleaning of channels.
  • Control of collar rot and leaf blight

New garden

  • Establishment of garden in well drained soil.
  • Take up transplanting in the beginning of south-west monsoon or the first week of June.
  • While digging the pits, the rows may be aligned in north-south direction by deflecting the north-south line at an angle of 350 towards west to minimize sun scorching.
  • Suitable shade trees may be planted on southern and south-west side.
  • After planting pit should be mulched with green leaves.
  • Cover the seedlings with plaited coconut leaves and grow shade crops like banana in the interspaces.
  • Sunhemp (green manure crop) seeds @ 20 kg/acre may also be sown in the interspaces as a soil reclamation measure and to avoid weed growth especially in the gardens without much overhead shade.

Old garden

  • Remove drip lines from the garden, roll back and keep safely for use during post monsoon season. This will prevent the pipes/tubes from soiling and clogging.
  • Adequate drainage should be provided in the arecanut gardens during the rainy season.  Open new drains or deepen and clean the existing ones so that the channel should be 25-30 cm deeper than the bottom of the plant base.
  • To rejuvenate old gardens, underplanting/replanting may be taken up in a phased manner over a period of 3 to 4 years. If the existing garden is irregularly spaced, thin out old, unproductive palms.
  • High humidity alternating with bright sun shine and rain favour the incidence of Fruit rot. Prophylactic spraying with 1% Bordeaux mixture will provide adequate protection to the bunches against disease incidence.  Spraying operations may be undertaken on clear sunny days with a very fine spray so as to give a protective coverage on the entire nut surface with fungicide.
  • Besides the chemical control, mechanical method of control of the disease by protecting the bunches through polythene covering is found to be very much effective in checking the incidence and spread of the disease.

July

Nursery

  • Intermittent removal of weeds is necessary.
  • Mechanical killing of insects like grass hoppers and caterpillars may be done.
  • Burning of diseased plants is advisable.
  • Removal of shade nets during rainy season.
  • Improve the drainage facilities.

New garden

  • Replace the weak and  dead seedlings by gap filling.
  • After removal of diseased plants drench the pit and surrounding pits with suitable fungicide.
  • Soil bunding at the base and anchoring the young seedlings during rainy season.
  • In young plantations, weeding should be done once in 3 months.
  • Care should be taken not to damage collar region of seedlings, stem and roots of young plants, while weeding

Old garden

  • Ensure drainage facilities
  • Second round of spraying with 1% Bordeaux mixture may be taken up 40-45 days after the first spraying.
  • In grown up gardens, weeding can be done once in 6 months.
  • Control  leaf spot and nut splitting
  • Control bud, crown, fruit and root rots

August

Nursery

  • Weeding and supervision for any disease incidence.
  • Drenching the seedlings depends on severity of disease incidence.
  • Ensure proper drainage in the nursery

New garden

  • Soil bunding and anchoring the young seedlings.
  • Supervise for the condition of drainage channels. Channels blocked with muddy soil, stones and plant wastes should be cleaned.

Old garden

  • Improve the sanitation in the garden by removing fallen rotten leaves, inflorescence bunches.
  • If the monsoon prolongs, third round of spray with 1% Bordeaux mixture against the incidence of fruit rot disease may be given.
  • In the case of bud rot affected palms, the damaged tissues may be scooped out. Remaining healthy tissues should be treated with Bordeaux paste or the crown drenched with 1% Bordeaux mixture and protected suitably from rain.
  • Control spindle bug
  • Harvesting for tender nut processing may be started

September

Nursery

  • Weeding and supervision for any disease incidence
  • Watering depends on continuity of rain

Young garden

  • Planting at the end of monsoon in high rainfall areas, particularly plots with high water table and clayey soils
  • Banana may be planted between rows to provide shade to arecanut in the initial stages up to 4-5 years
  • Soil bunding and anchoring the young seedlings, mulching and shading
  • Sunhemp plants may be cut and incorporated in the basins before they attain flowering stage.

Old garden

  • Forking and fertilizer application (second dose)
  • Young palms need to be given only graded doses i.e., one third and two thirds of fertilizers in the first and second year, respectively. As the south west monsoon generally recedes in September-October, the second round of fertilizers application may be taken up to supply 65g N, 25g of P2O5 and 90g K2O per adult palm in circular basins of 15 to 20 cm deep taken  at a radius of 75 cm to 1 m away from the base of the palm.
  • Organics may be added during this season which will enhance soil microbial activity and recycling of minerals. Application of 12 kg organic manure as green leaf compost/farm yard manure is recommended per palm.
  • In acid soils, 15 days prior to application of fertilizers apply lime @ 1 kg per palm and incorporate in the soil by forking. Lime can be applied once in two years.
  • Intercultivation by forking interspaces may be practiced.
  • Watch the palms carefully for incidence of bud rot and if noticed scoop out the rotten tissues, wash the surface, apply Bordeaux paste and protect from rain.
  • In case of crown rot, remove the infected bunches properly and control the disease during initial stages of infection by drenching the soil and advanced stage by spraying.
  • Control spindle bug
  • Harvesting for tender nut processing may be continued.

October

Nursery

  • Weeding and supervision for any pest and disease incidence.
  • Watering depends on intensity of rain

Young garden

  • Soil bunding and anchoring the young seedlings.
  • Forking and fertilizer application (second dose if not applied during September).
  • Incorporate the green manures grown as cover crops

Old garden

  • Plant protection
  • Scything and weeding as and when required.
  • Forking and ploughing of interspaces in monocropped gardens may be practiced.
  • If not applied in September, apply manures and fertilizers.
  • Incorporate the green manures grown as cover crops.
  • In low lying areas to cover the roots, fresh earth may be applied on exposed portions.
  • Control spindle bug and root grub

November

Nursery

  • Selection of mother palm, bunches, harvesting seed nuts and sowing in primary nursery, either nursery bed or poly bags.
  • Seed nuts are sown 5 cm apart in sand beds of 1.5 m width and convenient length with their stalk end pointing upwards.
  • Potting mixture 2:1:1 soil: FYM: sand, poly bags 6”x9” size 250 gauge with drain holes. Big size poly bags can also be used if seedlings are to be kept for more months in the nursery.
  • Thick mulching is to be done with straw or areca leaves.
  • Beds are to be watered daily either by using hose/sprinklers/misting

Young garden

  • Installation of drip lines and tubes.
  • Irrigation once in a week
  • Shading with coconut/arecanut leaves.
  • Mulching may be done in young areca plantations with areca leaves

Old garden

  • Weeding in plantation.
  • Irrigation of areca gardens and nursery may be started on receding of monsoon showers.
  • Palms exposed to south western sun may require protection against sun- scorch and consequent stem breaking.  In such cases green portions of the stem may be covered with areca leaf sheaths or opaque polythene film.
  • Control spindle bug
  • Harvesting for tender nut may be completed and for dry nut (chali) may be started.
  • Rope harvest of seed nuts is recommended from the trees that are very tall and in places where the ground is hard

December

Nursery

  • Sowing continued in primary nursery, either nursery bed or poly bags.
  • Shade net covering in the nursery.
  • Weeding
  • Daily watering

Garden

  • Clean the irrigation channels and commence irrigation once in a week at the rate of 175 liters of water per application. In gardens where there is shortage of water, drip irrigation may be adopted.
  • Fertigation should be started from this month onwards up to completion of summer.
  • Weeding
  • Protect the palms from sun-scorch.
  • Harvesting and drying of ripe nuts

 



ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute
Kudlu.P.O,
Kasaragod,Kerala, 671124


Phone : 04994-232894
Fax : 04994-232322
E-Mail :This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2750324
Time: 2017-11-24 07:28:42

                   

Copyright © 2014 CPCRI. All Rights Reserved